Internet, Social Media and Global Politics

The lectures  discuss the latest literature on the Internet and social networks, socio-psychological, and above all the political issues related to the impact of the Internet on the modern world. In particular, we will discuss issues related to the current Russian cyber aggression in the countries of the European Union (propaganda trolling).
The following issues will be discussed:
– The issue of cyber-utopianism and cyber pessimism
– The identity on the Internet.
– Cybersecurity and risks associated with the development of the internet
– Presentation of politics and politicians in social media
– Internet as a field of consensus and conflict in the field of international relations
– sociology of distributed e-community, the concept of „hive”
– Internet as a tool of hybrid war
– Civilizational changes related to the development of the network (social journalism); new era vrs only a new communication tool
– Questions about the digital economy

Possible gained skills:

The ability to reflect one’s own presence in social networks. Use of the Intenert and social network as a critical source of information on international politics.

Bibliograhy
Evgeny Morozov (2012), The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet FreedomEvgeny Morozov (2014) To save everyistyhing. Technology, solutionism and the urge to fix problems thar don’t exist.
Lanier Jaron (2011), You are Not a Gadget : A Manifesto.
Lanier Jaron (2013), Who owns the Future?
Schmidt Eric, Cohen Jared, (2013) The New Digitak Age. Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business.
Benkler, Yochai (2006). The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom.

Howard Gardner and Katie Davies, The App Generation. How Today’s Youth Navigate Identity, Intimacy and ImagDigital World, Yale 2014.

Manuel Castells, Communication power (2009)

Further reading

Singer P.W., Friedman Allan, Cybersecurity and Cyberwar
Hands Joss@ is for Activism : Dissent, Resistance and Rebellion in a Digital Culture, UK 2010, Gerbaudo Paulo, Tweets and the Streets : Social Media and Contemporary Activism, UK 2012
Van Dijk, Jan A.G.M, The Network Society, UK 2012
Castell Manuel, Networks of Outrage and Hope : Social Movements in the Internet Age, UK 2012
Hands Joss@ is for Activism : Dissent, Resistance and Rebellion in a Digital Culture, UK 2010, Gerbaudo Paulo, Tweets and the Streets : Social Media and Contemporary Activism, UK 2012
Van Dijk, Jan A.G.M, The Network Society, UK 2012
Ghonim Wael, Revolution 2.0, UK 2012,

 

48 thoughts on “Internet, Social Media and Global Politics

  1. Because the internet is a very big part of my – certainly of the most young people and adults – everyday life, I chose this course to get a deeper insight into what’s really happening behind the screens.
    In the current situation, one can say that it has actually gone so far that young people use the internet every second that they are awake (some of us even use it when we sleep, because many of us have gotten the idea that we can’t fall asleep without music, and most musical programs and apps are based on internet connection.
    I think that most of us have actually lost control of our use of the internet and that we are more depending on it than we would ever admit. But if truth be told, how many of us do not check out the feed on social media during lectures in school to make the time pass more quickly? How many of us can get out of bed in the morning, without checking what happened during the time when we were asleep? And how many of us aren’t sleeping with the phone close to us, just to be sure that we wake up if we get a message during the night?

    There are of course pros and cons of the internet being so large that it actually is today. We can find information as easy as one, and we have everything under control right away.
    An example of this is the last time I was flying back to Warsaw after the Christmas break and I sat in the bus on my way to the airport in Stockholm. Suddenly, the bus driver says that he received information that the whole airport is being evacuated and no one is allowed to enter. And this was the only information that he gave us. He said nothing about why we weren’t allowed to enter. Within the space of a minute almost everyone on the bus knew why we weren’t allowed. Everyone was sitting with their phone and searching for information. What I want to say with this, is that it is tremendously easy to find information by yourself, thanks to internet.
    To make the comparison even easier, we can draw a disadvantage from the same situation – when you find all the information by yourself. Much is written on the internet, and there are not many who are source critical in the current situation. We see information and we share the news that we find interesting or provocative; to forward the message and to see if others react in the same way as we do.

    On the internet, we are as anonymous as we want to be, most of the time. In some situations, we are unfortunately only as anonymous as the other person or receiver wants us to be. It is very easy to find information, such as IP addresses. We find the IP address, and we can get almost all the information about the person, such as name, surname, address and so on.
    Of course we can always use a false identity and say that we have a different name and use a different picture, that actually isn’t a photo of us. The first thought from the other side will of course not we that the person is lying about his identity. However, there are actions that allows us to easily start to question a person, which leads us to dig further and sometimes even find the right information of who this person really is.

    I think that many person who uses a false identity on the internet, do this when they want to provoke someone. They have a thought about something, but they are not brave enough to express themselves regarding the topic if everyone will know who has this thoughts. Therefore, it us much easier to sit behind a screen and say that he is a completely different person. Because, who will be able to judge you, when they don’t even know what it is you?

    Of course there are other cases than provocation, where false identities are used. Some people have such low self-esteem that they can create a fake account on any socialmedia-site and receive confirmation by claiming to be someone else. Easily said, they build up a fake world, with fake friends, fake pictures, and sometimes even fake relationships.
    I do not believe that this is the right solution to fix someones low self-esteem. I think that this would actually cause an opposite effect. It is very easy to stick in the fantasy world and refuse to come out to the ”real world” because the real world isn’t like we want it to be.

    During this course, I’ve learned how to use the internet to both good and bad stuff. I have gained a deeper insight into how people actually think about the internet and its use.

  2. It is interesting how anonimity of social media changes a man. The identity on the Internet has a different meaning than it has in the reality. When we see someone, for example, on his or her Facebook account, we are not always sure whether this person is the one it claims to be. Photos (usually „selfies”, which are self-portrait photographs) are not always real – here come some filtres and Photoshop, favourite tools of people, who want to look better on the Internet than they look in reality. Well, it is not hard to use them, so willingly we do this. Both men and women want to look attractive for the other people – it is all because of our sexuality. Let’s ask the question: is there any application or social networking site, which consist of human relationship (like texting or adding posts), which do not share our gender? Because gender is a key role in this Internet stuff. Why? Because sex, politics and money are things that captured our world, not only the Internet world. Erotica is generally widespread on the Internet.

    A Tinder is very interesting case. It is an application for smartphones, more simplified than Facebook. It consist of just swapping photos (to the right or left – depends on whether we like this person or not). It is a quick selection – we see someone’s photo – we swap to the left or right. It would be weird on reality to „swap” real persons, would’t it? I mean, it concerns not only a Tinder. People do such things on the Internet that they would never actually do in reality. For example, having 2000 friends on the Facebook – that is ridiculous. We are not supposed to know all these people in reality, but they are our friends on Facebook. Why some people collect friends on the Facebook? Is it because of their low self-esteem? Does it make them better people? It makes sense, when they want to collect friends to gain some „likes” from other. „Like” is the new approval. In a Tinder, there is an option to give a „super like”, but we have to pay for that. I cannot believe, but there are people who actually pay for such things like giving a „like”.

    „Likes” captured the world. Some people pay to receive some „likes”. Other people exchange „likes”. It is known as „like for like”. We give someone a „like”, so this person also gives us a „like”. I call it „the Internet transcaction”. Also barter, as well. The more the better.

    What about friends on the Facebook? „A friend” is a strong word, because friend is a close person to us. At least in a reality, because Facebook gives the other meaning to a friend. People, who are not our friends in the reality, are our friends on the Facebook. Is friendship on the Internet web more important than it is in the reality? What happened to people’s relations? I think that it is getting more and more dangerous, especially for young people, who have become familiar with the Internet since they were children. They have smartphones, tablets, computers – everything, what is needed to be the part of the Internet.

    My point is, that the Internet really simplifies our life. But not always in the best way. It also simplifies our relations to other people. What is texting in relation to a real talk? Meeting friends becomes a quick selection. The appearance counts more than personality. And sex, sex everywhere, according to the popular meme from a „Toy Story” movie. „Likes” are more important than other things. We can also pay for „likes”. Like I said, „likes” are the new approval. There comes an interesting paradox of likes: „if a woman has under her photo hundreds of likes and lots of comments, what she lacks? Clothes”. It is not weird to have above 2000 friends on the Facebook, but we exclude someone, who has for example only 15 friends. Some people think that it is weird, more weird than having circa 2000 friends. Why? Is that because someone who has only 15 friends is someone who is not worth our attention? In conclusion, we can use the Internet, well, we should, because it is really helpful, but when we use brain also.

  3. Civilizational changes related to the development of the network (social journalism); new era vrs only a new communication tool.

    I believe we will live in a new society soon, and today we already can see some features of this society. For example, participating in elections is very poor today among young people. But at the same time, we protect our rights more actively, some niche problem could easily mobilize people. Jan Soderqvist and Alexander Bard in their book Netocracy and Life after Capitalism describe a new type of society, so called Netocracy. In Netocracy people are organized in different groups based on interests and attention to some definite questions. These groups will be different in numbers, rules, goals or anything else. Some of them could be open, some secret. They could be managed on democratic or authoritarian principles. But people will be free to chose in which group to participate. Internet created an opportunity for people to communicate, share or spread ideas without dependency on location. So create groups much easier. And these groups are more important than traditional social institutions, because they reflect to personal interests and attitudes.

  4. Questions about the digital economy

    Today to start a business we do not even need to leave our apartment. You can start personal channel on YouTube and earn on advertisement. You can buy products via Internet from one country and sell it in another. You can buy real estate on a website, and then offer it for renting on another one. So, what does it change? First, traditional role of communication in business is not so important today. Very often, you do not even have to see your suppliers or customers. Culture of negotiations shifted from ceremony to chatting on Skype or Facebook. All it means that doing business become much easier. It is available for younger people than previously. The price of starting business is lower. I believe, these changes will create economy that is more vibrant and society will benefit from it.

  5. Presentation of politics and politicians in social media.

    Politics is just like an advertisement. Both should be where people are. And politicians are following their consumers. For business The Internet become one of a tools of promoting goods. Television, press, radio are important as previously, and Internet just spread the field for advertisement. What I’m trying to say, is that the Internet didn’t change principles of politics or electoral campaign, or even propaganda. Internet just changed the mechanism. Politicians as earlier should talk to electorate, not to the whole world. It does not mean the Internet is not sufficient, it is. And it is very different from television, press and radio. The Internet requires some attention to understand how it may work for politics, what are threats and possibilities. But I do not believe it will sufficiently change relations between candidates and electorate, or between government and society.

  6. Main reason why I chose „Internet, Social Media & Global Politics” as an additional course is that I am very interested in humankind evolution, causes and it’s effects behind every event in our history. According to my interests I find Internet and global network a highly influential step in our race growth. Since the beginning of world wide web at the turn of 80s and 90s, our society got an unparalleled opportunity to grow in super high speed, connecting everyone, everything, gathering knowledge and enabling us to communicate without any boundaries. Internet creates global intelligence, stores our thoughts, moments(pictures, videos), every definition, idea and information.
    We may not yet decided or made a ranking of most important invention ever. Why? Even though at the beginning it was just a small tool enabling people to read news or send messages it extraordinarily fast became a multitasking tool with influence at every step of our daily routine. And it is not over yet!
    Every tool can be used for good or bad and obviously the difference between those is unclear in many situations. Internet as it is definitely a not-one-use-device, it can be used both for enormously good reason and for the opposite. Good reason means sharing knowledge, information, facts, connection etc. Bad on the other hand refers to abusing, general harm, spreading lies… but there are unclear things, hard to get, hard to understand and to judge. Manipulation is definitely one of those things. It always was a great problem and it became greater since global media broadcasters entered our lives. Brainwashing was never so common, so easy to do and so “for everyone”. Today everyone starting from celebrities and government representatives, ending at every citizen of a small village – everyone can share their thoughts, convince others to them – manipulate. However the influence of every manipulation is different and in my opinion the most dangerous one form those is political manipulation. All those aspects combined bring us to the undeniable fact: if you can make one person think like you do, you get one more person who may eventually try to convince others to your idea. That is a deadly weapon. It may be the deadliest weapon in human history! Through internet people with great influence in nowadays world can share ideas, say what they think and gather small, weak individuals, without their own opinion to think like they do. Years of studying psychology and human nature allowed big units to understand society and ways how to control them.
    I took this course not to exactly learn something new, because I know world wide web mechanisms well, I am also aware of all the manipulation process taking place around that is why I try to take all the information from the web with a grain of salt. Knowing others people opinion (and there were many) about things I have framed in my brain is still very educative. This and a bit of English language in my course calendar at the university folds up to overally good opinion about those classes and if I were to chose one more time I would take them off the top of my head!

  7. First of all, I think that this lecture is extremely important for people who, in future, would like to work as journalists, diplomats, politicians and etc. But not only for them. We all exist in this modern internet society, but not many of us really understand how it works. And because of that so many of us gets manipulated so easily. We partly focused on the activity of russians on the web. That’s completely correct and useful because it’s also reveals another incredibly important fact. Internet is no longer nice and friendly environment where you can meet friends from all over the world. Not it has became also a battlefield. Battlefield where world world biggest powers collide and we all are taking part in this. Unfortunately, mostly unconsciously.

    Another great thing is that we were able to see many mentioned issues with our own eyes. In February we were witnesses of creation of „Ukrainian internet army”, on the other side we saw rising army of russian trolls. That also why these classes were so important. This is going to be our new reality. Then it’s good to know how to live and survive in this chaos.

    To sum up, I would like to remind last thing. We are the last generation that was born before global web and who saw how it was created and developing. It’s somehow our mission to guide younger generations which generally see internet in a completely different way. And that’s why they also don’t see many dangers that come from it.

    I hope that after my returning from Erasmus programme I will be able to participate in course like this once again. I think it’s worth it.

    Best regards,
    Ludwik Rudnicki

  8. I would like to talk a bit about an idea of a ‚national Internet’. As many experts say, the Internet used to be a so-called ‚global village’, now it has become a huge metropolis. It is thanks to the social media, for example, which pushed the Internet further, allowed many generations to be part of the Internet (from youngsters to the elders).

    The idea of the ‚national Internet’ has developed over the past decades. When the world-wide-web was first introduced by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, it was aiming the minority of all possible recipients. It was not until the 2000s when the first social media networks were invented, i.e. MySpace or Facebook. The Internet has become more of a national idea, which has lead to various innovations in sharing people’s views on different topics, including global politics. People could associate themselves with a nation of their origin, and were not just a random Internet user, a meaningless one in fact. The ‚national Internet’ is represented by people, not things/ideas. In terms of Poland, we can talk about Polish net users but not only them. The ‚national Internet’ includes and refers to website creators and holders; people and/or organisations that share and inform.

    It is a concept in which we all participate, which we all develop and make better and better. We should treat it as our global good. In the end, it all depends on us how well we can use the Internet for good goals and purposes from which we can all benefit.

  9. As student of Faculty of Psychology I found those classes supper interesting since I am interested in the role social media play in socialization and life of modern society. Topics we discussed were fascinating and made me looking at the matter from different perspective as well as enriching my knowledge. The way lectures were leaded as well as process of evaluation were unusual and made those classes even more interesting. I would definitely recommend signing up for this classes to everyone interested in the topic of social media as well as to those who would like to build their English vocabulary of this range.

  10. In this comment I would like to discuss the following question: how have we, as humankind, changed over the course of Internet and social media development in the past decades and how has the Internet changed as well?

    A natural and an obvious answer is „a lot”. It is not a wrong one; however, one shall demand something more specific, a more inside answer. Let us then discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the Internet and social media, and their influence on our human society spread out all over the world (thus global politics).

    We have become a new civilisation. The Internet is quite frankly an idea, created by a few people from this area of study, experts in certain areas (i.e. Tim-Berners Lee) but developed further by us – the Internet society. We are the motor that keeps this whole machine going, getting greater, stronger, filled up with more and more pieces of information. Average humans, normal Internet users had such an influence on it that they probably are not aware of that. And that is nothing strange, as the main purpose of the Internet nowadays is to quickly look something up or have a chat with someone. We think that we are only doing something within our small, imaginable bubble but we are de facto creating new content that then returns back to the database of the Internet and becomes worldwidely accessible.

    We have become „gods”, acting like the Internet was our slave, and not a friend. We have literally started giving Internet commands but also made the Internet our area of living, not just an extra space in which we can learn or chat. We are currently making the Internet our second home (for some – even their first one…). As Mark Zukerberg has recently announced, in the next 10 years, Facebook Inc. is going to change from an ordinary chat/upload photo/comment network to something even greater. The CEO of Facebook said that Facebook will read one user’s mind and send this thought to the brain of a different user. Yes – that is exactly what Zukerberg has said. The question is – have we not gone a bit too far? Is this idea not too private? In my opinion, it is! We are – sorry for this comparison – shocked when someone looks someone in bed but when we read all of people’s thoughts, it is perfectly fine and along the rules of social ethics and human rights? I do not think so and I am hoping that Facebook’s new ideas and innovations are going to respect its users’ privacy.

    Because, to conclude, that is the whole point of the Internet – it is a public space, respecting private „bubbles” of its users. And we humans should think in exactly the same way.

  11. The theme of the lecture is very up-to-date. Nevertheless, I want to warn you against treating the virtual community as the truest way for young people to exist in the contemporary world. Because not all of us are in that. A lot of my friends even do not have a facebook profile, not to menton about Instagram or any other social medium. I cannot send or receive multimedia messages, because my phone is, how to describe it.., more analog than digital. It is my own choice, I`m not snobbish, i`m not poor, I simply do not need it. Why? Because I don`t want to be on-line all the time! If I am on the job – it is my time to work. If I am off-duty- it`s my time for relax- not to check anymore information from my office. In the other hand, if I am interesting in what is up with my friends, I go with them for a beer. Internet can be a wonderful tool, but it`s our choice whether it is or it is not a leash.

  12. I don’t know if there is anything more annoying in the social media world than selfies. Of course we can’t forget about pictures of cats and babies. But it seems to me that there is something more in selfies than just annoying uselessness and frequency of publication. Why do we post our face three times a day? Noting has changed within an hour. But building social media profiles is not as easy as it might seem and selfie is a tool to build a false image. Some time ago I read a report about this new phenomenon and four professors claim that people who post more selfies have shallow relationship with people. Those who are real. Nowadays, relationships between people are getting looser and becoming less valuable. By creating our profiles on social media we show false picture of ourselves. We have got many followers on our accounts and they are people from all over the world, but we don’t know them, not at all. A lot of people who for example feel insecure and are afraid of non-acceptance, they are making great profiles on Facebook and Instagram to prove everyone that they are perfect, but no one is. When photoshop becomes our best friend it means that it is time for a change. Less selfie, more life.

  13. On the internet we are all anonymous. That phrase appears repeatedly in the media which publish information about another cases of breaking the law through the internet. I certainly agree with the opinion that a sense of impunity which bring us being anonymous users is a big problem. Very often it leads to all sorts of abuses and frauds. Wave of hatred, with which we are dealing in social media is also frightening now. People willingly express their views, when they do not have to sign up their names. It is easy to judge and insult when you remain anonymous. Aggression is focused largely around sexual, ethnic and religious minorities. The way I see it, each of us can help to reduce or even stop this wave. There are a lot of organizations which are fighting for the rights of minorities and all those persecuted on the Internet. Such campaigns as “the big Facebook cleaning” can really make a difference, if there will be people who really care.

  14. This course was very interesting to me due to various of reasons. First of all, currently I am studying sociology at the University of Warsaw, and I am doing my specialization in Department of Social Bonds Psychology. In my point of view the most important thing in sociology and cultural studies is the human. I truly believe that learning about processes which are taking place in society is closely related to opening to the other cultures and being an open-minded person. And nowadays, being in constant contact with people from all over the world is possible just thanks to the Internet. It allows us to constantly get information about what is happening in the farthest corners of the world. Moreover it is very important to analyze political, sociological, and psychological aspects of our lifes through the Internet influence. I also think that form of the course was very interesting and quaint. Opening a platform for student to let them sharing ideas is a great way to deepen and to improve communication. It also shows how much we can learn from other people through the Internet, which would not be possible for example 20 years ago. Now we can sharing our views so freely and without restrictions, it’s kind of magical.

  15. Hello, my name is Ula and I am a first year student of Master in Sociology on the Faculty of Applied Social Sciences . I’m very interested in of social media theme and their role in the modern world and thanks to the workshop I could study them more deeply. At the last presidential election we have seen how the Internet has a huge impact on the reality. Things that are happening on the Internet are proven to have a real impact on everyday life. Exactly the same as it was during demonstrations associated with ACTA, or for example with transmitting „Home Alone” during Christmas Eve🙂

  16. Here are three comments from Facebook, and I will post 3 comments from the articles on this website:

    Facebook comment 1 – [social media in democratization in Middle East] – „I think the importance of social media cannot be understated in organizing and mobilizing a significant opposition force (just look at Tunisia, Egypt in 2011, Hong kong last year, etc). But I worry about the filters (or lack of filters) between social media and the news. This article talks about uncensored documentation in real-time, which provides quite an important medium of communication between the activists and the public they are trying to connect with. But the inherent biases in the people publishing the media and the lack of quality/fact control in social media can create quite a distorted picture. We have seen from the Iranian „green” movement and from both sides in the Venezuelan crisis that all types of images can be deceitfully published to present a certain narrative”

    Facebook Comment 2 – [healthy communication in humanity] – „I think a heavy problem is the primitive nature of modern telecommunications. While it has improved (see smartphones, tablets, other small devices) we are sitll generally constrained to some sort of device and an indoor connection. As telecommunications improve and as this sort of technology can become even MORE mobile, these sort of constraints could be lifted, and integrated with outdoor activities, work, and other face-to-face interactions. That being said, the nature of how detrimentally the internet is affecting a youth’s development is unclear. We see some symptoms in small portions of the population (ADHD, anti-social behavior, social anxiety) but to say whether this negatively affects people over a broad spectrum is something I would like to see more conclusively proved.”

    Facebook Comment 3 – [Hillary Clinton Public email use] – „Im not at liberty to say whether there is a completely „secure” way to transmit date, but surely a better method would be to improve the security of the state informations systems rather than to revert to such an archaic and impractical method. Applebaum is using examples that, while certainly point out flaws in the security, do not completely equate with Clinton’s email dilemma. The human error of hiring someone like Snowden or the drastic decision that someone like Manning takes aren’t the same as Russian malware or the insecurity of a personal email account. She takes quite a nonsensical position; it’s short-sighted and regressive and simply trying to appeal to the readers as going „wow, the answer is so simple a public affairs journalist like me even figured it out through pure speculation!”

    lecture 2 – digital self – „I don’t know if the search for recognition and for knowledge („other-directed”) is necessarily a negative practice like so many people who thinking we are attention-starved and lonely on the internet. It’s a fairly new tool that we need to adapt our faculties to. We have a new medium where you can go and meet new people from unknown spaces across the globe, and we must adjust to this new, superfast, globalized form of socialization, so developing this sort of social recognition online and an online personality to accompany it seems necessary

    lecture 3 – app generation – „While I believe the internet and related technology does (and will) provide an ever-greater source of information that will relieve the burden of many teachers, it will not replace teachers. Teachers will be less burdened to drill students on fundamental lessons (as comprehensive guides will be located online) and the students will be able to find a breadth of information on the topic, along with the creative freedom to explore whatever they like. However, entrusting students to carry this goal entirely themselves is too risky. Students may create novelized ideas about the subjects they carry, learn from non-credible sources, overlook important points, and misjudge the importance of others. Teachers’ roles will change, but they will still be needed. Perhaps as a sort of „curator” for students, organizing a general topic and providing some basic resources to understand the topic. As for students not having to learn, retrieving information constantly from your smart device is inefficient. Our own memory and learned skills are far more efficient over time, and smart devices should work as a supplement to this (rather than a replacement)”

    lecture 6 – [flash mobs & crowd mentality] – „I guess we will have to see if centers of power and influence developing outside of the „Core” will truly make things decentralized. I can’t think of any reason why such new centers of power would not just become these „elite” cores in their own right, in due time. I think the rise of social media moguls is a good demonstration of this.”

    -Antoni Wolynski

  17. Digital self-identities is something more than group of anonymous users that can put in their profiles everything they want, no matter it is true or not. I tend to think that we have “digital society” in internet with its own culture of communication. The most important in this culture is that we don’t have any hierarchy, all people are equal here, no matter is it the President of the US or just a student who is looking for some information. You don’t have statuses in the Internet. Even more, in “digital society” you don’t have your past and possible future. That’s why it is so important to create your web-personality (or i-identity) because that is all that everyone else will know about “digital” you. The second thing about the culture of “digital society” is that you actually do not have any rules of communicating. As a user of Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Youtube I can say that my web-personality and the web-personalities of other people are different not only from the real ones but also one in Twitter can be different from one in Facebook simply because I’m active in Twitter and almost inactive in Facebook and so on. All this web-personalities make “digital society” to be like anarchical crowd. And all you can do is to create your digital world or to follow someone else.

  18. We are definitely the App Generation simply because no one generation before hadn’t had such a possibilities of using digital world as we have now. Is it bad or is it good? There are many different opinions related to this question already in comments. I agree that everything depends on degree of our involvement and degree of our dependence. For sure, digital world gives us a lot of possibilities and make our life more comfortable. We can do pretty much from home thanks to the Internet and Apps. And this is very useful. We can be in touch with our close friends 24 hours and share everything to our 400 friends in Facebook whenever we want. This is very useful too. But the question is “How much comfort do we really need?” I’m confident that we can feel good only if we get out from our comfort zone as much as possible. This also applies to the Apps. And the second question is “How much do we really need ALL the Apps we use?” This is about our time. Everyone lives in different way but still every selfie and every post in Facebook is your time. Everyone should decide of his/her own priorities.

  19. Internet, Social Media and Global Politics
    The course is very interesting and also very closed to our life. That’s why it is so useful and we can utilise it to see through appearances to grasp the essence.
    I’d like to talk about what I learned and felled from the internet & national interest class.
    I agree that America in some way really influence the world internet. If you check the top 10 largest Internet companies in the world, 6 are from America and 3 from China, 1 from Japan.The giant internet companies in America like ”google”, ”Amazon”, “Facebook”, they are really influence the world—not just in America, but almost all over the world people use them, except China. In China, thanks to our government’s Firewall policy, we cannot use google, Facebook, twitter. It sounds crazy but it’s truth, the only reason that we don’t have “revolt” is that we have substitution—we don’t have Facebook but we have Chinese Facebook—Weibo, a very important social networks for Chinese people. We don’t have google but we have Chinese search engine, Baidu. Some of them also are in the list of largest internet companies, but i’m sure they are just popular in China but not over the world. Also in China, everyone—as long as he or she use internet, knows that our government set the firewall and because of that we cannot use many interesting website like others. It’s like our government cut the line between China and world but we Chinese people cannot do anything about it, maybe complain on the internet and several hours later it will be removed by official. We all know the firewall is woking for prevent Chinese people from some different outside ideology, “western ideology”. Most of Chinese people know it, but just know it, feel angry, and then accept it, “Ok I cannot use Facebook but I can use Weibo, it’s the same.” Although some of us feel angry and want to fight for it, but it’s really a small part people and most of them can not do anything to can change the situation. And there is an interesting phenomenon, although we have firewall in China, but our biggest, also the throat of community Party, China Daily, has the second biggest fans on Facebook, which is really ironic thing and that means Chinese people actually still contact with the world. So in some way, the internet should serve for the nation’s interest, or the nation actually have the power to let internet serve for it. Visible or invisible, it actually exists.
    Also I’m deeply impressed with the class about Apps generation and digital natives. There are hundred of thousand Apps in the store waiting us to download them. As if you check your smartphone, I’m sure there are a lot of Apps and you use some of them everyday— like Facebook, we check it many times a day, even through there is nothing new. we have to say that, App generation comes, maybe it’s not very clear to older people—they are not used to it, but for young people, we accept it very quickly and let apps occupy most of our life. If you wanna jogging, there are many record apps and you can show how many kilometers you r the first thing when we go to a new place is finding “wifi” or asking “is there any free wifi?” really, technology change our life, from the first industrial revolution to nowadays internet, our life is changing and we cannot imaging how we can live without these technology any more. so i agree that in some way, maybe someday the internet as a tool can create new civilisation, we use internet to create our new civilisation. what is civilisation? in invisible way, our conduct, our way of thinking will be changed, it’s exactly what happened now. maybe the internet is not so strong to create a new nation or new religion for now but it can provide us a place to communicate, to create new things.and there are many community active on the internet, they gather together mostly because the same interest, some of them are very influential, maybe someday they will bring us a new “culture” and with it developing, the internet will create new civilisation.un to your friend on Instagram— another important app in our social life. If you wanna cook, there are also a lot of cooking apps teaching you how to cook, also you can show your fruition. Ironically, if you wanna get rid of there apps and focus on work and study, there are many apps can supervise you.Also some apps are so helpful with our studies but it need self control to get rid of other apps. And I think the knowledge we found on smartphones, it’s not ourselves’, but the smartphone’s, and overusing smartphone will limit our creativity and ability of criticise. So the school is still needed, also the smartphone, but have different influence in our life.
    To sum up, I think this course give me a critical view to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of internet, offer me a way to know how to understand the phenomenon and know how to use the advantages of technology to make my life better.Thank you!

  20. The Internet took away our freedom. Surveillance concernes everybody and our privacy does not exist. What if the Internet will be a destruction of humanity ? We can only imagine how far it will go. Anyway, we do not have control over this global matter. Everything, which was said in lectures by prof. K. Wóycicki made me interested on that issues, which seemingly unnoticeable are important.Democratic countries are more surveillanced than authoritarian one and your every mail sent gmail is unprivate. Such interesting classes are needed at Universities, because it enrich our point of views develope.awareness of the World. I also think that the way of teaching and evaluating students work was very interesting. students throughout the semester were involved in comenting and posting post on official page on Facebook , what was the basis for receiving grade. Yet unconventional methods, but very effective. I think that such knowledge is mandatory for everyone.

  21. To the truth I thought it would look different. I expected that we will focus on one aspect of internet in politics, for example how politicians use the internet during elections. I’m positively suprised. We discussed a lot of issues so everybody have found something useful for himself. The thing I learned is that in the internet we create other reality, the cyber reality. We could be anybody, that there is no longer something like privacy, every piece of our life is part of global network. It can be stolen whenever somebody want to. Another thing I like about this course is lecturer. He’s friendly and his approach to students is modern. The idea about writing the blog and activating students by participating in discussions is something that let improve our language and other skills.

  22. This lecture was very interesting for me, bacause I had possibility to get to know many theories which predict the future of the Internet. We were discuss not only about historic developmnent of the Internet and its current influence on our life, but also about the future of the Internet (which was especially interesting to me).
    What is more, our discussions show psychological aspect of the Internet. We came to a conclusion that the Internet allows us to create new identity (didgital self identity). Thanks this conslusion we could talk about results of this process.
    There is no denying that the Internet is a great source of human development, especially when it comes to accessibility to information. The internet gives us possibility to create entirely new identity, what is more also new world. The Internet influences us very strong (but here I must emphasize that it depends on us how strong we will be influenced by the internet, it is under our control) and that’s why it can actually create our personality. That is my interesting observation after this course.
    To sum up I have to admit that the lecture was very interesting and helped me to become aware how strong the Internet ifluences us.

  23. Being a student of journalism and political science this course was really helpful for me to understand global politics through different aspects. To know how media can completely change the view/ opinions of people through their news and how people end up following whats published in the news rather than having their own opinion which can be found in „Amusing ourselves to death” by Neil postman.Where he explains since we cannot reach everywhere, where things are happening, we take the help of social media/ news/ channels and we tend to believe what they deliver to us and have opinion, thus our opinions are based on media rather than our own knowledge about things.

    About the Digital self identity/ People’s identity on internet : it’s surprising how people have managed to completely show them different in social media than how they are actually in their real life. Well it has both of it’s advantage and disadvantage. Some people who are introvert and likes to live that way, they can take the help of social media in order to talk with people and share their feelings. Also about the battle of „likes’, „friends” which is shown in the picture is completely true. Some people so want to increase their friends number that half of them are the ones they don’t even know.! So the image of people on their real life is actually/ mostly very different than in their real life.

    About cyber security and the risks: this issue relates to a person’s well-being and safety online, technically meaning on the computer and on the internet. Also what precautions could be taken to prevent one from any possible dangers on the internet. The internet is open to everyone, those who are friendly and innocent and others who’s intentions are not as clear. Internet just don’t have good side where people can just chat and share their picture and video’s. As much as it has advantages , it has disadvantages too. Your accounts can get hacked, your pictures can be stalked, saved and misused, your business can be hacked and a lot of things can go wrong. Today, the internet has opened up countless communication channels, reduced the cost of networking and allowed human rights dissidents to spread their message. The internet was designed to maximize simplicity of communication not security of communication. The price for this has been the increasing opportunity for criminals or wrongdoers to exploit the vulnerabilities of the network for their own ends.

    My classes was really helpful to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the Internet from different perspective and the discussion in fb was pretty interesting. I wish you all goodluck and good summer vacation. Thankyou.

  24. Speaking about the present course, I’d also like to emphasize its importance, but paying attention first of all to its considerable anthropological aspect. As the course belongs to the so-called OG-UNs, in my comment I’d prefer to first of all touch upon the points, which appeared to be important personally for me.

    During the last term, we’ve been considering problems, which were not reduced exclusively to the political sphere, but rather to the universal one – I think it to be an indisputable advantage of the course in question. Frankly speaking, the said universal aspect presented the greater interest for me than, for instance, issues concerning presentation of politics (politicians) in the web.

    As far as the phenomenon of the internet is still quite new, it may be difficult to treat it from purely scientific point of view – this fact may be accounted for by the so-called “aberration of closeness”. Nevertheless, attempts to rationalize civilization changes connected with the Internet turn out to be very urgent and necessary. Such problems as, in particular, the human identity, anonymousness, the issue of social loneliness/involvement both in and by means of the Internet find a sincere response in my heart and mind, since these issued deal with more deeper, existential level of human life in the modern world. Such issues belong to the sphere of my primary interests, and from my point of view, it is closely connected with non-classical philosophy (which is also known as postmodern philosophy). Consequently, I especially appreciate, that Prof. Wóycicki at least several times referred to ideas of such figures as Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard etc. In my opinion, the phenomenon of the Internet and web-media as such greatly reflects the general trends of modernity, which (I mean trends), were somehow disguised just by the pleiad of French philosophers in the 2nd part of the 20th century. In this respect, I should probably add that concurrently with the course “Internet, Social Media and Global Politics”, I listened to another course devoted to postmodern philosophy – in a way these two supplemented each other in my perception.

    As every fundamental phenomenon in human life, the Internet (as well as a great cluster of other issues akin to the Internet) turns out to be very complicated and many-sided one. However, despite paradoxical it may be, dealing with the Internet and its fruits, the man faces the same dilemma as, for instance, with the fire: depending on the way of usage, it may result in good or in evil. It is a simplification, obviously, but in case with the Internet it is very important to acquire knowledge about the mechanism of the cyber world and the way it interacts with reality. Thus, I think, the aim of our course was giving to the students an opportunity to get such knowledge, and to my mind, it was quite successful.

  25. This course was very interesting to me due to various of reasons. First of all, from my point of view very valuable was the sociological aspect of the course. I study sociology and all subjects that are related to this area of knowledge are really fascinating to me. Furthermore, I think that the Internet phenomenon is probably one of the most important elements that have an issue for today’s societies thus it is very important to analyze political, sociological, and psychological aspects of our lifes through the Internet influence. In my opinion the fact that the Internet was also one of the tools used to perform the course was very original and innovative. I think it is an excellent idea to combine a regular lecture with an online interaction between the students and the professor. It makes the course more interesting and diversified and bulid some kind of an online community. Additionally, it gives an opportunity to share our ideas after the course and finally let us to create some kind of performance which is directly related to the course idea.

  26. I would like to make the following comments on the „Internet, Social Media and Global Politics” discussed issues.

    I agree with the statement, that nothing is private in the Internet today and in most of the cases there is no such thing as internet freedom today. But what does this mean? What is the main problem of internet surveillance and our privacy?

    Today our online reality is that we have two main actors to protect our privacy from, private sector (which use mainly the ad strategies) and governments (which may have different tools and strategies based on security issues). The first actor is already known. We aware of the fact that “Google’s servers have been reading the content of Gmail users’ e-mails since the service debuted, in order to serve up user-appropriate advertising and to block spam”. We all agreed to this by using Google services.

    In The Economist article “Should the government know less than Google?” (Jun 11th 2013) it is said that “in the online world, essentially everything we do is always being archived and searched by the companies that provide us access. There was a time when we might have asked whether those companies should be barred from using that behavioural information for commercial purposes, but that ship sailed long ago. The question we’re asking now is whether the government should be allowed to gain access to those private search archives for national security purposes. The government isn’t spying on us; Google is spying on us, and the government is asking Google for certain results”.

    The important conclusion given in the article: The problem isn’t so much that we haven’t set up a legal architecture to preserve our online privacy from the government; it’s that we haven’t set up a legal architecture to preserve our online privacy from anyone at all. If we don’t have laws and regulations that create meaningful zones of online privacy from corporations, the attempt to create online privacy from the government will be an absurdity. (The Economist, Jun 11th 2013, http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2013/06/surveillance-0).

    All that means that question of our privacy depends on our government. The main thing is whether our government democratic or not. Evgeny Morozov in his book ‘The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom’ wrote about this difference. “Democratically elected governments in North America and Western Europe may, indeed, see an Internet-driven revitalization of their public spheres as a good thing; logically, they would prefer to keep out of the digital sandbox—at least as long as nothing illegal takes place. Authoritarian governments, on the other hand, have invested so much effort into suppressing any form of free expression and free assembly that they would never behave in such a civilized fashion. The early theorists of the Internet’s influence on politics failed to make any space for the state, let alone a brutal authoritarian state with no tolerance for the rule of law or dissenting opinions”.

    It’s all clear about authoritarian government which have only one purpose – to stay in power as long as possible and by using all the possible tools for this. But for democratic governments it’s also all theoretical and even questionable. There is such thing as “paradox of adjustment”, which explain why it’s so difficult to solve the problem of preventing terrorist attacks and not to act in way similar to terrorists’. To my mind the same thing with online privacy and security if to talk about the democratic government. There is no “boundary line”, no rules for governments as well as for Google.

  27. The lectures on Internet, Social Media and Global Politcics did not only touch upon the numerous theories of the Internet, Virtual Reality, Social Media and Applications, but also gave the listeners real examples that to a great extent confirm the theories. We’ve found out why people react to internet activities like flashmob, and why they are too keen to manifest their political views on the Web often in a very radical way. We have observed how different ideologies are conveyed via internet, the most optimistic and the moste pessimistic ones. We have examined how powerful the Internet propaganda can be (mostly on the example of Putin’s Russia) and discussed the Internet ‚outlaws’ like hakers. We’ve also slightly analysed the influence of the Internet (mostly it’s neagative apsects) on it’s users. The lectures are worth attending if one is interested in sociological aspects of the Internet era. I highly recommend this OGUN.

  28. Internet, Social Media and Global Politics
    Internet creates the illusion of „freedom of choice” for humans. The user can choose which sites to visit and which are not. What information read or not. Decide by themselves, what political message are noteworthy. But this is misleading. Politics found on the Internet a lot of advantages and opportunities, to use it for their own selfish purposes . Posts under a pseudonym or anonymously, false information and outright lies – all this in Intyrnet aren’t filtered and becomes ” point of view” on events. Huge flows of information makes it impossible to understand where is right and choose loses its rationality.
    The development of social networks to rally people, in groups, communities, various thematic associations. Thus formed mass of people united by the idea. I disagree with the fact that the masses can be wise. To collective action people encourages a keen dissatisfaction person’s interest, why in the mass loses sense of responsibility and rationality. In humans of the crowd appears the feeling of irresistible force, and the main motivation is emotional and irrational. For policies organization of the masses through the Internet become a valuable tool for manipulation, demonstrations and discontent not support.
    Evgeny Morozov in his book ‘The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom’ wrote that in the West, „people want to believe in the fairy tale that the Internet – is a tool of freedom” and that in any place where offers access to the Internet, it helps free people from the shackles.
    Morozov said that to support independent opposition groups on the Internet would be more important to prevent the sale of an authoritarian government surveillance technologies developed by Western firms. In addition, in his opinion, should be to persuade Facebook and Google to lift sanctions against the anonymous bloggers.
    That phase of the Internet when it was „global village” are departing in the past. Now, each country tries to protect its Internet space. This is completely objective, because of opportunities worldwide network and the tendency to use it for selfish purposes. Already, each country discusses the issue of information security, including the danger of the manipulation. In previous comments also been said about the regional and linguistic limitations. Internet become controlled, or at least organized space. Jean Baudrillard in one of his lectures (City and hatred) said – our information arteries, the Internet and the establishment in the near future as we promise, global communications suggest that we just transcend the threshold of global information and its availability at any time and in any place, for which there is a risk of automatic compression, sharp reversal, the risk of information big crunch. Perhaps we have already stepped over the threshold may have a disaster occurs when an abundance of information supplied by the media itself is canceled and if the balance is expressed in terms of objective information, in a sense, is negative (the perverse effect of saturation of information).
    This is not space of open information, but only the space information presence. Now we can see that the restrictions for private communications is not widely uses, but when it becomes mass, the public nature we can see atypical from previous years changes.
    About gadgets and apps. For me apps is just new offers and opportunities for virtual space and lifestyle of the new generation of Digital Natives. Advantages and disadvantages has everything. But if they demand, why not satisfy his by new proposal? With Apps Generation virtual life becomes more comfortable. It is a natural process of development.
    It is important to see the global trends in the world that relate to use of the Internet and other benefits of technological progress. The most comprehensive is the statistical information. Take a look Measuring the Information Society Report 2014. This report Identifies key information and communication technology (ICT) developments and tracks the cost and affordability of ICT services, in accordance with internationally agreed methodologies – https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/publications/mis2014/MIS2014_without_Annex_4.pdf

  29. Personally, I signed up for this course, because it was, as one of the few conducted in english..One of the factors was also the topic. In real life discussing with my friends about the importance of the Internet and the media in our daily lives, here is the extent to which they affect our lives and decisions. It is said that soon the human will be replaced by machine everything will be mechanized and just a few specialists able to handle it, then the unemployment rate will rise. The media are shown as professor recalled, different stereotypes. For example, how women should look like, what should change to be the ideal of beauty, and yet the world’s ideals of beauty were women are natural, original and proud of what they look like, who even emphasized its beauty, such as Marilyn Monroe or Audrey Hepburn. The classes were moving current problem as getting stuck in the cells and communicate to the world about your every step. By being „closer” to the world, we lose touch with reality was even a social campaign as „look up” which was made to make people aware of how much they lose and try living here and now.

    Were also discussed political issues on which we resorted poles because of the fact that we are used to that in this sphere everything happens not in our favor that we have no influence on the actions of the government and we prefer not to involve. The professor spoke about the situation in Ukraine, which I did not know too much beforehand. Media also a lot of things did not communicate to the public.

    I liked the classes, there were plenty of topics discussed which interests me, about the things that surround me, and I could confront my opinion with others. Do not always have to be right after all, it may be that someone will present the corresponding arguments to change my point of view at certain things.

  30. At first, we need to evaluate the functions and roles of internet in social life. It is undeniable that the appearance and development of internet contribute very great strides on several aspects such as economy, education and especially in communication. Image how human life has been being so far without internet. An important thing is that over others internet has forming new norms, patterns, regulations.. shared and accepted among members. This leads to strong changes going on in contemporary institutions and also breaks barriers as well as provide sources more equal to every society for development.
    Basing on perspective on socialization, mass media is one of socialization environments in which people do interact with each other to be imparted social patterns. School is the second important social setting for children growth after family. How do you think or image that children’s identity is formed without interacting with their peer group in school? Thus, in my opinion, school is still needed in any society to perform its functions not only of knowledge educating
    It is the fact that we are the app generation because we can not live or work without the service of internet, especially apps due to its faster and faster development. The problem is that how and which purposes we apply this stuff. I think to some extent apps have influence on our behaviors and habits but not too pessimistic because our social behaviors or actions are essentially formed by social settings in which we are a member.
    To some extent mass communication, or more specific internet operation, in a certain country depends on political regime of that country. Some countries with authoritarian regime such as Russia, China authorities always make attempts to control public opinions towards the political stance that the elites of those countries are making use of to rule people and limit penetrance from outside. But others like USA and the West with freedom of speech of a democratic society will let internet work as its nature. So I think politically there will be national internet, however, such nations of USA and the West will be wider than others
    Space of performance of people on Internet is very open, wide and available. There people give and get multiple-dimension information and can be extremely famous very quickly in a negative or positive manner. However, it’s not save enough to expose any private thing. It is because when considered as an social world, there will be calculations that participants have to make for the purpose of benefiting in any aspect in internet. As a result, some will be harmful and some will get disadvantages resulting from the calculations. In the real world, negative effects of internet contribute to increase anomic phenomena originating from social actors.
    It is undeniable that internet became an indispensable vehicle in social life. The more and more development of internet with emergence of social media such as Facebook, Twitter… has made for alteration of competition of political parties in periods of electoral campaign. I have just read a paper on typologies of party in democracy and just realized that the parties which don’t have or lack an explicit ideology extremely make use of function available of internet to maximize their vote-share more than do others if the parties are willing or legitimate to contest elections. And I wonder that to what extent it fits for the case of Poland?

  31. This course was very important not only for my professional stage, but in my personal life. The first of all I was interesting in cybersecurity and cyberterrorism.
    From communicating via email and instant message to traveling, banking and shopping, nearly every aspect of our life revolves around the cyber world. We haven’t our freedom. Because the Internet is so widely used, protecting vital information in the cyber world is not only our responsibility, but a necessity to preserve our national security. Some hackers are “playing a prank,” while others may be attempting to steal personal information such as credit card numbers, Social Security numbers, or other personal information. Even worse, hackers can take control of an infected computer and use it to launch an attack on a larger system. Even if your computer has no stored sensitive data, it can still be used to infect other computers without my knowledge! This practice is so prevalent that access to vulnerable or
    infected computers is bought and sold among hackers.

    In the course I learned ho protected my private life, my family and bussines from the hacker attacks and understand, that my cyber hygiene isn’t just about protecting you, it’s about protecting all of the world. Cyber security is a shared responsibility. Internet companies and brick and mortar merchants can do their part by shoring up the security of their networks and payment systems. Government can educate the pubic and enforce anti-cyber crime laws. Businesses can make sure that they have strong security processes in place, including making sure their employees use strong passwords and everyone can play an important role by securing our devices and being sure that our passwords are strong and unique.

    Besides, I’m really fascinated by book „The NET DELUSION. The Dark Side of Internet Freedom”. In my point of you it would be handbook for every students. The author, E. Morozov explains it mission is to beat back “cyber-utopianism,” at least as it relates to international affairs and diplomacy. He defines cyber-utopianism as “a naïve belief in the emancipatory nature of online communication that rests on a stubborn refusal to acknowledge its downside.” He blames “the starry-eyed digital fervor of the 1990s” and the “former hippies… [now] ensconced in some of the more prestigious universities in the world” for giving rise to the notion that “the Internet could deliver what the 1960’s couldn’t” in terms of building a better, more peaceful world. (p. xiii) He also aims to counter what he has elsewhere referred to as “the public’s penchant for fetishizing the engineer as the ultimate savior.”

    Morozov positions himself the ultimate Net “realist,” aiming to bring a dose of realpolitik to discussions about how much of a difference the Net and digital technologies make to advancing democracy and freedom. His depressing answer: Not much.
    „The change is not always positive,” Morozov tells NPR’s Neal Conan. „Yes, [social media] are affecting the world. But it also looks like the other side — the authoritarian governments — are getting empowered as well.” Sure, election protesters in Iran were able to tweet, blog and record the violence they saw, which prompted some to claim the victory of a social media revolution. But think about the flip side, Morozov cautions. Authoritarian governments can harness the Internet’s power to serve their purposes as well. Some use it for surveillance, Morozov says, „tracking down what’s happening on social networks, trying to identify who are all of those people tweeting.”
    Morozov used to think the reverse was true, but during the April 2009 protests against the government in Moldova, he changed his mind. „As it happened, there were still a lot of networks that were analog … human networks — protesters talking to each other on the phone, or just talking to each other in real life, and actually encouraging each other to appear in the square,” Morozov says. But because the digital messages on Twitter and Facebook were visible to everyone, much of what happened in Moldova in 2009 was attributed to the Internet.

    In conclusion, I would highly recommend this course to make all students at the beginning of Uni’s study!

  32. The generation of me and my colleagues is considered as the generation which lived in the pioneer times of cyberspace. I believe it’s true. Our generation remembers the first feeling of being connected to the internet – and the full freedom within it. Since that time, we can observe that cybersphere has a growing influence on our lives.

    It’s hard to weigh pros and cons of that situation. It was really valuable to attend on this class for various reasons, but it was also great to hear from the professor about how much of a tremendous change internet was for people who remember the world before it. My generation doesn’t remember those times and got already used to cyberspace and treats it like a normal, almost natural, thing.

    According to the Morozov’s and others’ works, we were warned about how dangerous cyberspace could be. I’m afraid the most of us aren’t aware of it. The internet is a perfect toy to play with civilians’ lives and control them by authoritarian regimes. Freedom of speech, respecting human rights on websites is present only in the foreground. Background is painted by pale and dark dyes: surveillance, espionage and brainwashing. On the example of russian trolling, we are able to notice the whole tactics of i-armies that were created several tears before. „Hive” attacks and paid „trolls” are showing just a part of huge industry. It remains important to make a remark of fencing off the Russian (but also Chinese) internet from the western equivalent. A clear signal of creating a cyberbarricades through nations and countries.

    On the other hand, i-espionage could still be a complex matter for the average John Doe. Cyberspace stands as a perfect playground for him and a place for bottom-up activity in various ways. Internet turned the way that politics is being made upside down. It broke the television and press monopoly in favor of informing society. A mobilized electorate who supports its own candidate and promotes him in the cyberspace can truly change and rebuild the political scene.

    To sum up, the lectures gave students a lot of remarks about how to perceive our modern society from internet point of view. With every human invention comes giant responsibility for the whole humanity; it can be utilized for both good and bad deeds. It’s the same with the internet. Hopefully, we will manage to use it only for the first ones. But these wishes are yet to be realized.

  33. The course Internet, Social Media and Global Politics attracted me from the very beginning; as soon as I have seen it on the OGUN list, I knew that it will be something for me. Like many others, I am a person who uses the Internet daily, for various reasons – to communicate, to do research, to find out about all the things that are happening in the world right now etc. What intrigued me the most was the title of the course.

    I am into politics and social media activites, and so it was obvious that I was going to pick it. I was interested in how well could the two ideas be linked together and make unity. We hear a lot about how various political personas use social media and the Internet as a whole to propagade their views or to share certain concepts with a broader range of people.

    A perfect example could be the Arab Spring during which many sides of the argument used Twitter as a device to not only communicate with people, but also to share images and videos easily with the whole world – to let the world know what it going on. This idea has resurrected together with the rise of Euromaidan, and later during the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. Twitter and Facebook were key devices with which global media could inform the population of our planet Earth about things which would not have been possible with traditional camera and microphone scheme of TV/radio reports.

    Leaving this topic for a while, I would like to pay some attention to the idea of the Internet itself. It is probably the most fascinating invention of humankind, after the wheel of course. Not only does it allow people from all of the world to communicate with one another in real time, but also it enables people to share unique and very original talents/ideas. Webpages, i.e. YouTube is full of such things. The Internet helps many people to become someone more than an ordinary person, the Internet changes people’s lives and gives them second chances. That is the good side of the net.

    However, together with advantages there are always disadvantages. In case of the Internet, it is the possibility for almost anyone to do anything. What I mean is these so-called ‚trolls’ and anonymous personas. They – in most cases – are the reason for Internet wars and also conflicts outside of the net. ‚Haters’ – recently more and more popular – can influence humans in such way that they do not control themselves anymore, the pressure is too big. In the end, if not helped properly, these people end up depressed or – in the worst scenarios – dead, usually by suicide.

    In conclusion, do I think that the Internet (together with global politics) is good? Yes – of course it is. As I said, it is a perfect device for sharing views and communication. What is interesting is that both the biggest advantage and disadvantage is its openess. This means that not only people can be globally famous, but also can be influenced by certain people who often stay with no identity.

    * * *

    I am glad that I have chosen this course. Not only have I learnt many interesting concepts, ideas, but I also have been able to interract with other people both physically and telecommunically (via our Facebook page). Both interractions were completely different feelings which only shows that the Internet as a whole is something very different from what humankind could have experienced before.

  34. The classes were very interesting. Lecturer preapred a lot of interesting topics which are very important at the present time. Create fb funpage was very curious experience. On this funpage we can put our comments under the topic and also discuss with other people. I can certainly recommended these classes. 10/10 !

  35. Hello,my name is Qin Fang, one Chinese student of yours.The class is quite interesting.I learned Journalism in China,the course give me that what I am good at and interested in,I enjoyed it.Social media development has become a hot topic of contemporary political communication, combined with the global case focuses on how cognitive political use of social media, study global development trend of social media applications political status quo and the political use of social media and problems Discussion of social media on political communication more impact-oriented, to provide advice to give full play to the positive role of social media in political communication, thinking.From a global perspective, the application of the main political social media presents a two-way hand trend.On the one hand politicians and social media applications, frequency and extent of government agencies continues to grow.On the other hand is the world of popular participation through social media breadth and depth of political are rising gradually.Social media in the daily government elections and political parties have played an increasingly important role, but also speed up an effective channel for the general public to participate in politics.Overall, social media in political communication in a broad and diverse applications have been and continue to be a global trend of political communication.The core of social media lies in interpersonal relations remodeling and reconstruction, and the core of political activity that is in the structure and then the structure of power and resources, such as political communication scholars Heller says, „political activity is the development and use of organized society the power of effort „, politics is in power relations continue to define and redefine the process of human interaction, thereby contributing to global political social media application depth and breadth of continuous progress.

  36. I have chosen this particular course, because Internet and Social media lie in the sphere of my academic interests around 4 years now. Honestly saying, it was not the first course for me dedicated to the mentioned topic. While studying Public Relations, I attended several courses, which teach how to use Internet and Social from PR perspective. That time I became crazy about phenomenon of Internet. So, it was now a surprise that I dedicated my Master’s project to the system of social communications in Ukrainian non-governmental organizations. While conducting expert survey and profound analysis of obtained results, I disclosed a scope of problems that exist in this field and proposed a number of recommendations that will help to provide effective communication through Internet integrated into day-to-day management decision processes of NGOs.
    On the other hand, the course of Dr. Woycicki, arise more fundamental issues like civilization changes, cybersecurity or e-community. From my point of view, the course is quite interdisciplinary; it is based on philosophical and sociological pillars. Obligatory literature is also brilliant. I have not read all positions yet, but I plan to do this in the nearest future. I may add to the bibliography one more book „Від Facebook-у і гламуру до Wikileaks: медіакомунікації”(http://life.pravda.com.ua/announces/2011/12/21/91538/) that perfectly correlate with a course title. Unfortunately, it is not translated into English, but you can read it in Russia or Ukrainian. It is written by G.Pochepcov, who is Ukrainian communication specialist. In this book you can find a profound analysis of new media-phenomenon, which determine our life, with special focus on new media.
    Another positive moment is that the professor has proposed to use facebook as an educational tool. As a result, course becomes more interactive. Students that did not attended classes were not excluded from studying process and got possibility to participate in online interaction.

  37. I think the most interesting aspect of this course was charting out the ideal of the internet as some sort of democratic, communitarian tool presented during the establishment of the modern internet. As we have seen in this course and in our daily lives, such ideals were maybe too optimistic and did not take into account the monitoring and restriction of the internet by governments and other actors. I would say the most extreme cases we talked about were of course Russia and even moreso China. Russia has banned a number of websites on „moral” grounds under bills like ” Russian Internet Restriction Bill” and the „on protecting children…” bill, which has allowed them to counter opposition, criticism of government, criticism of general Russian society, and to protect various Russian political interests. Moreover, the most impressive thing about the Russian government’s tight hold on their internet and media (something that China and the West lack to a heavy degree) is their ability to propagate through the internet, which has earned them mass domestic and international support. The Chinese are one of the closest answers to the question posted in class about the possibility of „national internets”, and makes it quite hard to view even the most basic Western sites like google, Facebook, and popular adult entertainment sites without a proper VPN. The Chinese and Russians have developed their own popular alternatives to western sites and social networking as well, for example with China’s weibo and youku, or Russia’s VK and yandex. This complex network of control and self-sufficiency over the internet has created the opposite of the democratic, communitarian ideal of the Internet like many scholars imagined. It has created an autocratic, heavily monitored network that not only allows states and their related actors to watch their citizens and expand their autocratic force, but also increases the social hold of society through nationalist elements and propaganda. Western countries, in order to combat this, would have to keep a less open version of their own internet, which cannot be done in a truly democratic system. But such democratic limits have not prevented the spread of internet monitoring, phone monitoring, and other intrusive practices by Western governments and their agencies to gather intelligence. In attempting to discuss the democratic possibilities of the internet, we ended up also discussing something much darker and oppressive.

  38. I would like to make several remarks regarding the title of our course. First, it is worth to mention that Internet as well as social media are communication channels. These channels are widely used now not only by politicians, but also PR-men, who specialize in political PR, to reach the targeted audiences with particular purpose (to inform, to change opinion ets). What is important, Internet and social media (another name – new media) have influenced a lot how communication in politics is conducted. Ten years ago it was difficult to imagine that someone will be able to follow activities of the President of USA with a mobile phone. Today everyone can do it through twitter without any obstacles. Second, governments of developed countries are spending more and more money for Internet communication. It is going in such way, because Internet is a powerful tool for image and reputation building. It is also actively used in communication campaigns. For example, in 2011-2012 British government spent £1.343 million for PR. It is pretty good sum of money, isn’t it? So, we see a significant shift in technology usage through last ten years. While that time TV has played a model role in political PR, now Internet and new media are taken this niche.

    Comment on article: Lokot N. Russian Social Networks Dominate in Ukraine Despite Information War, Global Voice, 1 September 2014,
    What this article shows for me is that Ukraine and Russia has belonged to the same geopolitical region for a long time. While being a part of one country – the Russian Empire and then the USSR – they shared common values, benefited and suffered from the same things. Of course, after the fall of USSR, the situation has started to change. However, till now there are some facts that may be difficult to understand for foreigners. Russian networks’ usage by Ukrainians is one of such ambiguity. For many Ukrainians e.g. vkontakte is only a network, where is possible to use music or video content for free. On the other hand, it can be a paradox why Ukrainians use Russian social media if Ukrainian IT market is one of the biggest in the world? The author of the article has to mention that one month after the Maidan appeared the initiative to create Ukrainian social network – http://druzi.org.ua/

    Comment on article “Ruling the Internet According to Law”: Chinese Internet Governance in 2014 and Beyond, China Brief Volume: 15 Issue: 2
    Say honestly, I am not into the topic, but after reading the article I understand that non-democratic refimes like in China perceive Internet as powerful tool that can be used the same as classic chanels of communications (e.g. TV, radio) to inform audience, change its attitude etd. I can’t say that Chinese Internet is fully controled by goverment, it is rather partually free of censorship. Another important point is punishment.

    Answer to the question: In the future, why will we need school? After all, the answers to all questions are – or soon will be – contained in my smartphone
    Fact that in the nearest future a smartphone will contain all answer to all question is rather a challenge than alternative for classic system of education. We should perfectly understand that school is an instition that provides us with service, while a smartphone is a device, which should help us in a studing process. A smartphone may easier the access to information, make our studing process more affective, BUT it can’t substitute school. It can be a tool for e.g. online-learning, participation in online-courses, but in this case we have to study as well. Someone should be quite naive to think that it is an ipad or iphone is a synonim of university or school background.

  39. 1. The identity on the Internet:
    the Internet has become a predominantly unrestricted place since its creation. It is such a place where everybody can present their opinions in any form they choose. However, one of the most interesting things about the identity on the Internet is concerning what happens when your digital identity starts to merge with your real-world identity.
    Such is the power of anonymity on the web, that it has made it possible for people – lots of whom may normally be restricted from communicating with other people – to spread their opinions without fearing the repercussions of their actions. Actions that could cause dangerous situations because of using their real names. Free speech in the Internet has broken the physical barriers that were enforced by governments and dictatorships across the whole world. It is seen in such places such as e.g. Egypt or Iran. The possibility to stay anonymous in the Internet results in the possibility for people to discuss very sensitive subjects, such as e.g. medical physical abuse or sexual orientation. Speaking out anonymously does not affect one’s everyday life in a negative or potentially harmful way.

    There are lots of positive ways to use anonymity in the Internet. However, sometimes there can be cons, bad side effects, such as bullying, racism, accountability, etc. There are lots of people who intentionally abase other person or group of people. Very often they simply cannot be identified and therefor cannot be held accountable. Such offending people hide behind a pseudonym. However, things are starting to change. The rise of identity-centric social networks like Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and LinkedIn, make it more and more difficult to exist anonymously on the Internet.

    However, the only question that occurs is whether complete lack of anonymity is OK… I personally believe that YES, there is a lack of anonymity in the digital age and it is not good. Nowadays we can find out whatever we want to know about everybody…..

    2. Digital Self (Lecture on Facebook)

    When it comes to ‚Selfie’ it is common nowadays as it is classified as a cultural phenomenon. In fact it exposes a very basic human desire – to feel appreciated, noticed or recognised.. And, although the ‘Selfie’ may not always elicit the most desirable type of recognition, receiving just a few likes from our Facebook or Instagram (or any other social media) friends reveals an elementary aspect of human psychology that can actually help drive results. When people are recognized and feel appreciated, they repeat the behavior that was recognized….. So…, they keep taking selfies.🙂. I’ve recently read an article concerning selifes craze and selfie mental disorder. I’ve personally seen this with some of my friends.😉 They might take several selfies over and over again until they find the right on. Picking out details about their looks: skin, noses, eyes, eyebrows, smiles, teeth, hair and so forth, all in an attempt to find the perfect angle to make the perfect picture. Even looking at how most of us choose our profile pictures on Facebook (or Twitter, Instagram, etc.) is a huge process. These acts seem, they build up over time to create great forms of self consciousness and false sense of confidence or ….. mental disorder. Instead of being okay with how we look and who we are no matter what, we strive to find the right photo. The more likes we get on social media sites the happier we are. Frankly speaking I don’t think it is sustainable..

    3. Apps Generation and Digital Natives (lecture on Facebook)

    Everybody notices that the current generation of youth is deeply involved with digital media. Apps are very useful.. but we gradually lose our privacy. Our behaviour online is of great interest to hackers and marketers (of course🙂 ). However, our smartphones are an even greater treasure trove of behavioral information. Unfortunately, the apps we use are very often the weakest link..
    Moreover, smartphone users (I believe most of us) are not conscious of the danger. Once downloaded app onto our device, can access all of our most personal and protected information, and send it onto untrusted and harmful destinations..

  40. Internet, Social Media and Global Politics was very interesting course on different aspects of the social networks and modern world.

    I am 4 year student of psychology and for me the most interesting aspects of the internet are computer-mediated communication (CMC) and its features. Characteristics of the tool and behaviour. Is Internet communication impersonal? Self-disclosure, deindividuation and disinhibited behaviour. Anonymity or pseudonymity? SIDE model
Access to the Internet and the digital divide. Skills, competences and and barriersbarriers. Internet use and psychological well-being, social support and social relations. Internet abuse. Addiction or “addiction”? Procrastination on the Internet
Internet, groups and communities. Virtual communities. 
Online identity: real or virtual? Constructing, hiding and playing with identity. Negatively stigmatized groups on the Net. The Internet in close relationships. Attraction, love and friendship online. Antisocial behaviour online, aggression and flamewars – mechanisms and prevention.

    I took that course to broaden my horizons and my knowledge in internet related aspects since it is very important for the future psychologist.

  41. Aleksandra Maksymiuk, an Internet, Social Media and Global Politics course participant pisze:

    I add comments I’ve posted on facebook so far:

    1. A comment on lecture 6: crowd wisdom
    Ola Maksymiuk I was preparing myself to write several comments and I found this TED video with Lanier’s speech on youtube. In his talk he touches the topic of people’s virtual identity and creating avatars. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IwbGumZ-FYg I found this video very interesting and I think everyone should see it. It turns out that even small changes of details in a digital design can be meaningful for our perception and can have deep effects on us, humans. Our identities can be influenced or completely changed by working gadgets. Different types of media wake different potentials of human nature up and force us to adjust our actions to the reality and needs created by particular type of media. The virtual freedom we get is only an illusion. Although it is called “an open culture”, it really encloses us in a narrow space between reality and many alter-egos we can develop, changing out behavior online. What we consider “a new possibility” is actually a new limitation, a trap we can get caught online very quickly. In his book “You are not a gadget”, Lanier says that what happened to elements online, like files and musical notes, may happen also to the definition of human being. Our identity online, although we consider it great and unique, is already diminished and abbreviated to the login we created. Lanier says that people get used to pseudonimity and anonymity online and it may be the case that in the future they will forget that things could be different. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIwikI7IVYs This is another Lanier’s interview and this time he explains that people are no longer able to cope with the amount of information they get online. The perfect solution to this problem is a prospective invention of a super-browser, which will show us only the set of information we really need, but this is obviously only utopia. WWW world is constructed in a way which prevents us from consciously selecting information. The impression that we have control over what we see on a website is vague. Online reality connected with human being nature exceeded our abilities in the world but also showed a new dimension of no return.
    TEDxSF – Jaron Lanier – You Are Not a Gadget
    Time Magazine named him one of the 100…
    youtube.com

    Lubię to! · Odpowiedz · Usuń podgląd · 1 · 15 czerwca o 23:34

    2. A comment on lecture 3 – App generation

    When it comes to data and applications privacy I highly recommend watching this movie:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZcjtEKNP05c

    Policies we agree with are not only offensive but also constrictive and these apps users were absolutely terrified with what they had heard about the details of each „ageement”. Now we will all think about each „allow”s in our life in a different way, I guess. Each day we make decisions, we feel we’re able to control our life and our privacy. In fact the scope of decisions depending on us in 100% is very limited when it comes to smartphone apps. Moreover, it is completely legitimate from the perspective of law because we actually allowed the application to use our data, read our messages, change contacts and control the calendar. This is the limitation we allow because we are not aware of that. Our private information and data are elements of the bigger worldwide jigsaw, which are being used by numerous organisations keeping this fact secret.

    3. A comment on lecture 2 – digital self

    RE to Anna Ogińska’s comment

    I think a „selfie” has always been designed to make people proud of their look and their achievements. Sometimes it allows people to create someone completely new, a new personality which is invisible on a day to day basis, helping in dealing with self-acceptance issues in their minds. This creativity gives many possibilities of using selfie-kind pictures for particular purposes, thus an average-looking facebook profile may be way more influential than we think it really is. The profile we create is not designed to be as true as possible, but rather to depict our own rosy picture we want other people to see. We are able to change it whenever we want, make it more powerful, more influential and persuading. The same mechanism is applied in case of political selfies, where the circumstances, conditions and other, particular elements are carfully elaborated to bring an intentional effect.

    Our facebook profile may be designed to make particular impression and influence other people’s perception of one’s real life. It also seems to be a perfect tool for building political influence.
    Re no. 2

    I completely agree with you but I’d like to focus on how selfies can be used to change opinions and build false image. We all are designed to follow and copy, we find other people inspiring and do what they do. Later on we learned that it is actually more pleasant if we look better than other people and we started being more and more creative in building social media profiles. Likes make us happy which for my grandmother is an unthinkable phenomenon. I spent aged explaining what a „like” actually is. It saves time, click on „Like” instead of making the effort of complimenting is way quicker. I realised that for the younger generation (1999 e.g.) one like means significantly less than to us Emotikon smile We associate a „like” with some kind of appreciation of our „uniqueness”, they think of it as of „a quantity” needed and absolutely necessary to stay famous online.

  42. This lecture was very interesting for me, bacause I had possibility to get to know many theories which predict the future of the Internet. We were discuss not only about historic developmnent of the Internet and its current influence on our life, but also about the future of the Internet (which was especially interesting to me).
    What is more, our discussions show psychological aspect of the Internet. We came to a conclusion that the Internet allows us to create new identity (didgital self identity). Thanks this conslusion we could talk about results of this process.
    There is no denying that the Internet is a great source of human development, especially when it comes to accessibility to information. The internet gives us possibility to create entirely new identity, what is more also new world. The Internet influences us very strong (but here I must emphasize that it depends on us how strong we will be influenced by the internet, it is under our control) and that’s why it can actually create our personality. That is my interesting observation after this course.
    To sum up I have to admit that the lecture was very interesting and helped me to become aware how strong the Internet ifluences us.

  43. Lectures on politics and politicians in social media as well as Internet as a field of consensus and conflict in the field of international relations are significant to reflect upon. Special attention here I’d like to give to the influence of Internet on perception management by politicians in cross-cultural (mis)communication and their manipulation techniques (name-calling, glittering generalities, transfer, testimonial, plain folks, card stacking, band wagon, to name few), i.e. conflict of competing “truths” or “perceived realities”. Nowadays Internet allowed politicians to shape perception of people, manipulate their cognitions and direct their behavior to achieve a desired outcome (top-down activity). As Walter Lippmann (Agenda-Setting) notes, media and internet propaganda play big part in building conflicts within society, because society responds to the pseudo environment created by media in the way that “first, the media agenda is set; second, public agenda is created; and finally, policy makers/political leaders respond to manipulate. Marxist and neo-Marxist theories saw the media as “managers of opinion at the behest of the powerful”. Furthermore, Howard Frederick, John Arquilla and David Ronfeldt were the first ones who started to use the terms of Noosphare and Noopolitik, when describing the informational mass-media soft-power strategy of manipulating public and their opinions in international sociosphere. Internet and media propaganda in Realpolitik influences excessively on creation and planting of stereotypes (beneficial for politicians) in different states (here examples include propaganda of Russopphobia in one states as very useful label for pol-l manipulation, also used by Russia after collapse of SU, and Russophilia in other states for winning good relations). This is very fragile issue on interenational scale, because as George Gerbner notes, the fact that media is not a realistic representation of the world, it might cause the danger of cross-cultural miscommunications. Let me recall some examples. For instance, during the Quebec October Crisis the media has contributed significantly to an escalation of the crisis by creating a situation saturated with anxieties and panic, i.e. speculations before the death of Pierre Laporte and the War Measure Act, which censored the media in Québec (it created a dangerous situation for Cross). Also, the aim of the FLQ was to gain maximum press and television coverage to increase their bargaining power, so they used the media to gain public attention to their ends and popular support in Quebec for independence. Some even believed that the mass media were used to promote disintegration of Canada. Another example is about Polish-Lithuanian miscommunication on the football match between Lech Poznan FC and Vilnius Žalgiris FC, where the football fans used anti-Lithuanian banner with the words ‘Lithuanian oik, kneel before the Polish master’, which was escalated by media. Although official apology campaign and Youtube apology videos followed, media coverage made this conflict all the more worse. Thanks to the media, reactions in Lithuania were following: comparing the football match to “battle” or “war” between two nations; involving Polish ethnic minority and creating negative stereotypes about them; leader of the Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania (EAPL),Waldemar Tomaszewski expressed “It is a provocation made by Lithuanian special services” while Lithuanian politicians in turn said he was urging the conflict between two nations; this was also a window of opportunity to start campaign vs EAPL.

  44. This course once again proved that Internet is a perfect way of controlling society, especially by politicians (top-down). There are several changes Internet caused in globalized world. It is a construct to our identity, i.e. e-persona, digital identity. Intellectual property market is changing due to Internet copyrights. Also, the notion of e-economy/digital economy is getting extremely popular. Reality is changing into hyper reality. At the same time Internet allows for bottom-up activity. Example, Arab Spring mobilized people against the Government via Internet. In last November Presidential elections in Romania, Facebook essentially mobilized the electorate for K.Iohannis, especially voting of Romanian Diaspora abroad.
    Comments on Internet articles:
    On – ICANN Institute is gradually opening new top level domain names: that’s amazing how commercially marketable domains could really be a great business merely by making it easy-to-remember and then it works for you.
    Lecture on Internet, Flashmob & Crowd wisdom: this is intricate dilemma whether the Many are smarter than the Few. Surely, there’s a proverb proving ‚two heads are better than one’, i.e. joint labors/decision-making/thinking of many produce much more effect than the efforts of a solitary worker/individual. However for the crowd judgment to be right I think decisions of its members should be made independently of one another. There’s a phenomenon of crowd behavior, mutual influence, bias which might undermine/homogenize the wisdom of a crowd. So accuracy might be harmed because crowd members tend to consensus in their judgments, I.e. collective copycat behavior. Therefore, better if the crowd is diverse and it’s members are independent thinkers, which is difficult to achieve as it’s known by social and economic behaviorists. Moreover, not sure If politicians themselves would welcome contrarian opinions, it’s easier to rule homogenized crowd I reckon.
    On – Hacker attacked German Bundestag: This again proved vulnerability of security health of any nation, security still a myth. Even fingerprints can be forged. Cyber attacks and digital theft paralyzes the whole nation, but hackers could be useful as intelligence officers in cyber warfare and espionage, that’s Realpolitik. But then there’s an issue of infringement into privacy if hacking fails and doesn’t meet the end. Some countries prohibit unauthorized access/damage of ‚protected computers’ while other give immunity to intelligence officers and police from hacking laws.
    On – future need of school: Well I don’t think smartphones or Internet could fully substitute school (esp as socializing institution) but could essentially improve and facilitate learning. For instance, have a look at Khan Academy and his idea of flipping the classroom, where Software is used for less lecturing and more interaction purpose. Moreover it allows every student to work at their own pace to master concepts before moving on. Individual approach that’s what all contemporary didacts are striving for in edu. Also teacher uses his time more effectively: more like a flexible coach/mentor which is much higher value thing than traditional lecturer. The passivity is taken out of classroom. So Internet, special subject-oriented software programs could be rly of help and fun. However, innovation works as long as teachers are trained properly to apply this, also the whole methodology of teaching should be revised.

  45. Very interesting topic that helps us to look at our society problems from different sides also very good kind of teaching the subject!

  46. This lecture was really interesting, we could learn various issues concerning interlocking topics such as Internet, politics, media, as well as a little bit od psychology and sociology. The great thing was that we could discuss different cases, articles and issues on a Facebook group which was devoted to our comments, discussion and analasis of the topic.

  47. Paweł Nazaruk uczestnik zajęć Internet, Social Media and Global Politics pisze:

    Hello, my name is Paweł and I was attending this classes for the last semestre and it was very interesting.

    For the first time I attended classes that were in the circle of my interests . I signed up because, first I was interested in this classes and second because during this semestre i was writing my BA thesis , which is on social media in election campaigns.

    That is why subject ‚Presentation of politics and politicians in social media’ was so interesting and helpful to me.

    I also think that the way of teaching and evaluating students work was very interesting. students throughout the semester were involved in commenting and posting post on official page on Facebook , what was the basis for receiving grade. I hope that UW will offer more such classes as the Internet, Social Medis and Global Politics.

  48. At the FB- page for this course there have been many discussions of the Russian aggression against human rights, especially on the Internet. The consensus is that cyber war is real and that we have to get used to it. But what has the Russian aggression really shown? I will argue that we have to get used to the fact that nothings is private, and that your Internet privacy is dead.

    We could read in “The Net Delusion“ the new ways that authoritarian regimes use Internet and social media as a tool for espionage, surveillance and ultimately control. It’s truly disturbing to read Ahmadi Moghaddam, Iran’s police chief, comment that “the new technologies allow us to identify conspirators and those who are violating the law, without having to control all people individually.” (Morozov, p.146) This actually means that Iran is targeting the mass population, and later on picking out the people that they find suspicious. They can use different keywords as- “democracy,” “opposition,” “human rights,” or simply the names of the country’s opposition leaders—and focus only on particular segments of the conversation. (Morozov, p.151)

    So where are we now? Iran seems like a long way from our “western world”, especially for us Poles. But if we look out east, to Russia, we can see a harsh escalation in control over peoples social media. In the Russian controlled Belarus, an activist was 2009 caught by the KGB due to his activity in social media. Another example, Pavel Durov, founder of „Russian Facebook”, had to escape Russia due to the threats he received by Russian FSB (Bertrand, 05/18/15 Buisness Insider). This activity, often made out of nonstate “patriotic hacker” networks, is now a part of modern warfare. (Singer, p. 186)

    Why this interest in social media, one might think? Morozov answers: “For why should the Iranian government embark on expensive investigations if they can get their computers to match the photos taken during the protests—many of them by the very activists appearing on them—with more casual photos uploaded on social networking profiles by the same activists? “(Morozov, 154). In the case of the Russia, Morozov says that we are actually doing the job of the FSB/KGB: “In the past, the KGB resorted to torture to learn of connections between activists; today, they simply need to get on Facebook.” (Morozov, p.156)

    So where are we heading? All of us are using social media, apps and the Internet all the time. Smartphones are taking over our lives. Controlling our diet, waking us up, reminding us of our daily schedule.(Economist, 03/07/15) In one way this is spectacular and convenient. If we are not political activist, then we’re maybe not losing sleep over Russians spying the Facebook. So what about the future? The Guardian reported that in 2020 there would be 50bn devices connected to the Internet, four times as many as 2013.(Goodman, 11/03/15) When there is not only governments who are interested in monitor us but even terrorist, companies, organizations and religious groups, what consequences will that have for the privacy of Internet?

    There is no secret that this combined with the fact that “innovation in data analysis expands the range of what is possible, surveillance is poised to become more sophisticated as well, taking on many new features that only seemed like science fiction in the not-so-distant past. “ (Morozov, p.143) We can’t look in the future, but based on the increased number of Internet devices we use, the information we put in through social media and the governments ready to use the information, we can clearly see that in the future Internet privacy is dead.

    Evegny Morozov, The Net Delusion

    Singer/Friedman, Cybersecurity and Cyberwar

    Buisness Insider-
    Bertrand, 05/18/15 (http://www.businessinsider.com/the-founder-of-russias-facebook-explains-how-the-kremlin-took-his-company-away-2015-5)

    Economist-
    03/07/15 (http://www.economist.com/news/technology-quarterly/21645503-exposure-nasty-throat-infection-or-confirmation-heart-attack)

    Guardian-
    Goodman, 11/03/15 (http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/mar/11/internet-of-things-hacked-online-perils-future)

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